Warning: count(): Parameter must be an array or an object that implements Countable in /home/bobjuch/public_html/TNG1003/genlib.php on line 1114

Warning: count(): Parameter must be an array or an object that implements Countable in /home/bobjuch/public_html/TNG1003/genlib.php on line 1114
Plantagenet, King of England John I "Lackland" b. 24 Dec 1166 Kings Manor House, Oxford, Oxfordshire, England d. 19 Oct 1216 Newark Castle, Nottinghamshire, England: Bob Juch's Kin
News:
   Last Name:   First Name:
Log In
Advanced Search
Surnames
What's New
Most Wanted
Photos
Histories
Documents
Videos
Recordings
Albums
All Media
Cemeteries
Headstones
Places
Notes
Dates and Anniversaries
Reports
Sources
Repositories
Statistics
Change Language
Bookmarks
Contact Us
Register for a User Account


Warning: Use of undefined constant imageJpeg - assumed 'imageJpeg' (this will throw an Error in a future version of PHP) in /home/bobjuch/public_html/TNG1003/personlib.php on line 822
Plantagenet, King of England John I "Lackland"

Plantagenet, King of England John I "Lackland"

Male 1166 - 1216  (49 years)


Warning: count(): Parameter must be an array or an object that implements Countable in /home/bobjuch/public_html/TNG1003/genlib.php on line 1114

Warning: count(): Parameter must be an array or an object that implements Countable in /home/bobjuch/public_html/TNG1003/genlib.php on line 1114

Warning: count(): Parameter must be an array or an object that implements Countable in /home/bobjuch/public_html/TNG1003/genlib.php on line 1114

Warning: count(): Parameter must be an array or an object that implements Countable in /home/bobjuch/public_html/TNG1003/genlib.php on line 1114

Warning: count(): Parameter must be an array or an object that implements Countable in /home/bobjuch/public_html/TNG1003/genlib.php on line 1114

Warning: count(): Parameter must be an array or an object that implements Countable in /home/bobjuch/public_html/TNG1003/genlib.php on line 1114

Warning: count(): Parameter must be an array or an object that implements Countable in /home/bobjuch/public_html/TNG1003/genlib.php on line 1114

Warning: count(): Parameter must be an array or an object that implements Countable in /home/bobjuch/public_html/TNG1003/genlib.php on line 1114

Warning: count(): Parameter must be an array or an object that implements Countable in /home/bobjuch/public_html/TNG1003/genlib.php on line 1114

Warning: count(): Parameter must be an array or an object that implements Countable in /home/bobjuch/public_html/TNG1003/genlib.php on line 1114

Warning: Use of undefined constant imageJpeg - assumed 'imageJpeg' (this will throw an Error in a future version of PHP) in /home/bobjuch/public_html/TNG1003/personlib.php on line 822

Warning: Use of undefined constant wife - assumed 'wife' (this will throw an Error in a future version of PHP) in /home/bobjuch/public_html/TNG1003/getperson.php on line 446

Warning: count(): Parameter must be an array or an object that implements Countable in /home/bobjuch/public_html/TNG1003/genlib.php on line 1114

Warning: Use of undefined constant imageJpeg - assumed 'imageJpeg' (this will throw an Error in a future version of PHP) in /home/bobjuch/public_html/TNG1003/personlib.php on line 822

Warning: count(): Parameter must be an array or an object that implements Countable in /home/bobjuch/public_html/TNG1003/genlib.php on line 1114

Warning: Use of undefined constant wife - assumed 'wife' (this will throw an Error in a future version of PHP) in /home/bobjuch/public_html/TNG1003/getperson.php on line 446

Warning: count(): Parameter must be an array or an object that implements Countable in /home/bobjuch/public_html/TNG1003/genlib.php on line 1114

Warning: Use of undefined constant imageJpeg - assumed 'imageJpeg' (this will throw an Error in a future version of PHP) in /home/bobjuch/public_html/TNG1003/personlib.php on line 822

Warning: count(): Parameter must be an array or an object that implements Countable in /home/bobjuch/public_html/TNG1003/genlib.php on line 1114

Warning: Use of undefined constant wife - assumed 'wife' (this will throw an Error in a future version of PHP) in /home/bobjuch/public_html/TNG1003/getperson.php on line 446

Warning: count(): Parameter must be an array or an object that implements Countable in /home/bobjuch/public_html/TNG1003/genlib.php on line 1114

Warning: Use of undefined constant imageJpeg - assumed 'imageJpeg' (this will throw an Error in a future version of PHP) in /home/bobjuch/public_html/TNG1003/personlib.php on line 822

Warning: count(): Parameter must be an array or an object that implements Countable in /home/bobjuch/public_html/TNG1003/genlib.php on line 1114

Warning: Use of undefined constant wife - assumed 'wife' (this will throw an Error in a future version of PHP) in /home/bobjuch/public_html/TNG1003/getperson.php on line 446

Warning: count(): Parameter must be an array or an object that implements Countable in /home/bobjuch/public_html/TNG1003/genlib.php on line 1114

Warning: Use of undefined constant imageJpeg - assumed 'imageJpeg' (this will throw an Error in a future version of PHP) in /home/bobjuch/public_html/TNG1003/personlib.php on line 822

Warning: count(): Parameter must be an array or an object that implements Countable in /home/bobjuch/public_html/TNG1003/genlib.php on line 1114

Warning: Use of undefined constant wife - assumed 'wife' (this will throw an Error in a future version of PHP) in /home/bobjuch/public_html/TNG1003/getperson.php on line 446

Warning: count(): Parameter must be an array or an object that implements Countable in /home/bobjuch/public_html/TNG1003/genlib.php on line 1114

Warning: Use of undefined constant imageJpeg - assumed 'imageJpeg' (this will throw an Error in a future version of PHP) in /home/bobjuch/public_html/TNG1003/personlib.php on line 822

Warning: count(): Parameter must be an array or an object that implements Countable in /home/bobjuch/public_html/TNG1003/genlib.php on line 1114

Warning: count(): Parameter must be an array or an object that implements Countable in /home/bobjuch/public_html/TNG1003/genlib.php on line 1114
Personal Information    |    Notes    |    Sources    |    All    |    PDF

  • Name Plantagenet, John I "Lackland" 
    Title King of England 
    Born 24 Dec 1166  Kings Manor House, Oxford, Oxfordshire, England Find all individuals with events at this location  [1
    Gender Male 
    Died 19 Oct 1216  Newark Castle, Nottinghamshire, England Find all individuals with events at this location  [1
    Buried Cathedral, Worcester, Worcestershire, England Find all individuals with events at this location 
    Person ID I8204  Bob Juch's Kin
    Last Modified 23 Sep 2020 

    Father Plantagenet, Henry II "Curtmantlel",   b. 25 Mar 1133, Le Mans, Sarthe, Normandy, France Find all individuals with events at this location,   d. 6 Jul 1189, Castle Chinon, Saumer, Indre Et Loire, France Find all individuals with events at this location  (Age 56 years) 
    Relationship natural 
    Mother Eleanor,   b. Abt 1122, Chateau de Belin, Guinne, France Find all individuals with events at this location,   d. 31 Mar 1204, Mirabell Castle, Poitiers, France Find all individuals with events at this location  (Age ~ 82 years) 
    Relationship natural 
    Married 18 May 1152  Bordeaux Cathedral, Bordeaux, France Find all individuals with events at this location  [1, 2
    Family ID F3223  Group Sheet  |  Family Chart

    Family 1 Taillefer, Isabella,   b. 1188, Angoumé, Landes, Aquitaine, France Find all individuals with events at this location,   d. 31 May 1246, Fontevrault Abbey, Anjou, France Find all individuals with events at this location  (Age 58 years) 
    Married 24 Aug 1200  Bordeaux, Gironde, France Find all individuals with events at this location 
    Children 
     1. Plantagenet, Joan,   b. 1188, London, Middlesex, England Find all individuals with events at this location,   d. 2 Feb 1237, Caernarvonshire, Wales Find all individuals with events at this location  (Age 49 years)  [natural]
     2. Plantagenet, Henry III,   b. 1 Oct 1207, Winchester Castle, Hampshire, England Find all individuals with events at this location,   d. 16 Nov 1272, Westminster Palace, London, Middlesex, England Find all individuals with events at this location  (Age 65 years)  [natural]
     3. Plantagenet, Richard,   b. 5 Jan 1209, Winchester Castle, Hampshire, England Find all individuals with events at this location,   d. 2 Apr 1272, Berkhampstead Castle, Hertfordshire, England Find all individuals with events at this location  (Age 63 years)  [natural]
     4. Plantagenet, Isabella,   b. 1214, Gloucester, Gloucestershire, England Find all individuals with events at this location,   d. 1 Dec 1241, Foggia, Naples, Italy Find all individuals with events at this location  (Age 27 years)  [natural]
     5. Plantagenet, Eleanor,   b. 1215, Gloucester, Gloucestershire, England Find all individuals with events at this location,   d. 13 Apr 1275, Montargis Abbey, France Find all individuals with events at this location  (Age 60 years)  [natural]
    Last Modified 23 Sep 2020 
    Family ID F3165  Group Sheet  |  Family Chart

    Family 2 FitzRobert, Isabel,   b. Abt 1165, Tewksbury, Gloucestershire, England Find all individuals with events at this location,   d. 14 Oct 1217  (Age ~ 52 years) 
    Married 19 Aug 1189  Marlborough Castle, Wiltshire, England Find all individuals with events at this location  [3
    Last Modified 23 Sep 2020 
    Family ID F3166  Group Sheet  |  Family Chart

    Family 3 de Ferrers, Gather,   b. 1168, Chartley, Staffordshire, England Find all individuals with events at this location,   d. 4 Sep 1201, France Find all individuals with events at this location  (Age 33 years) 
    Married 1188 
    Children 
     1. Plantagenet, Joanna,   b. 1188, London, Middlesex, England Find all individuals with events at this location,   d. 2 Feb 1237, Caernarvonshire, Wales Find all individuals with events at this location  (Age 49 years)  [natural]
    Last Modified 23 Sep 2020 
    Family ID F3167  Group Sheet  |  Family Chart

    Family 4 de Warenne, Adela,   b. Abt 1164, Surrey, England Find all individuals with events at this location,   d. Abt 1220  (Age ~ 56 years) 
    Children 
     1. Fitz Roy, Richard,   d. 1246  [natural]
    Last Modified 23 Sep 2020 
    Family ID F3168  Group Sheet  |  Family Chart

    Family 5 de Warenne, Suzanne,   b. Abt 1166, Surrey, England Find all individuals with events at this location 
    Married Abt 1186 
    Children 
     1. Plantagenet, Richard,   b. Abt 1186,   d. Abt 1248  (Age ~ 62 years)  [natural]
    Last Modified 23 Sep 2020 
    Family ID F3169  Group Sheet  |  Family Chart

  • Notes 
    • Reigned 1199-1216. Signed Magna Carta in 1215 at Runnymede.

      His reign saw renewal of war with Phillip II Augustus of France to whom he has lost several continental possessions including Normandy by 1205. He came into conflict with his Barons and was forced to Sign the Magna Carta. His later repudiation of the charter led to the first barons war 1215-17 during which John died. Burke says he was born in 1160.

      King of Ireland 1177, Count of Mortain 1189, Earl of Gloucester.

      Matthew Paris wrote, 'Foul as it is, hell itself is defiled by the presence of King John', and this pretty well sums up John's reputation--until 1944, that is. For in that year Professor Galbraith demonstrated in a lecture to an astonished world that the chief chronicle source for the reign of John was utterly unreliable. Since then bad King John has been getting better and better, until now he is nearly well again, and a leading scholar in the field has seriously warned us that the twentieth century could well create it own John myth.

      A man who can create so many myths, or rather have them created about him, is clearly outstanding in some way, but the myths hide the truth. Plainly the chroniclers who invented stories about him after his death can tell us little, and we should not take too much notice of people who condemned John for carrying out his father's (and his brother's officials') policies and administrative routines, nor indeed those who condemned him because of the bitter troubles that happened in the succeeding reign, troubles which were in no means entirely of John's making. Recent historians have turned to the administrative records of his reign, and found there a very different picture; but still the lingering doubts remain--were these records the result of John's skill and application or of those of his able staff?

      John was a paunchy little man, five feet five inches tall, with erect head, staring eyes, flaring nostrils and thick lips set in a cruel pout, as his splendid monument at Worcester shows. He had the tempestuous nature of all his family, and a driving demoniac energy: Professor Barlow says that 'he prowled around his kingdom, ' which is an evocative phrase, but it would be truer to say that he raced around it. He was fastidious about his person--taking more baths than several other medieval kings put together, and owning the ultimate in luxury, for that time, a dressing-gown. He loved good food and drink, and gambled a great deal, though he usually lost--the results of his typical impatience and carelessness are recorded on his expense rolls; above all things he loved women. Some say his 'elopement' was the cause of his loss of Normandy. He was generous to the poor (for instance, he remitted to them the penalties of the forest law), and to his servants; at the least he went through the motions of being a Christian king. He was extortionate, though if one considers the terrific increase in his outgoings (a mercenary soldier cost him 200 per cent more in wages than he would have in Henry II's day) one can understand some of his actions in the field. He was deeply concerned about justice, took care to attend to court business, and listened to supplicants with sympathy; he had also an urgent desire for peace in the land, saying that his peace was to be observed 'even if we have granted it to a dog.' But for all that, he had two totally unredeeming vices; he was suspicious, and enjoyed a cloak-and-dagger atmosphere--simply he did not inspire trust in his subjects. Dr. Warren says of him with some justice that if he had lived in the twentieth century he would have adored to run a secret police.

      He was born at Oxford on Christmas Eve 1167. He was oblated for a monk at the abbey of Fontevrault at the age of one year, but was back at court by the time he was six--plainly he had no vocation, but he probably picked up at this early stage his fastidiousness and his passion for books: his library followed him wherever he went. He was his father's favorite, but he turned against the old man when his chance came, as he did against Richard (who had been very generous to his brother) when the latter was in captivity in 1193. The episode was a miserable failure, but it possibly sowed the seeds of distrust for John in England, where they began to sprout luxuriantly in 1199 when Richard died and John came to the throne.

      Immediately the challenge came: Philip Augustus, the wily King of France, was backing John's nephew, Prince Arthur of Brittany (son of John's elder brother Geoffrey) as a contender for the throne, and England's French possessions fell prey to civil war. John found grave difficultly in dealing with the situation for a number of reasons, but in 1202 he made the remarkable coup of capturing Arthur by force-marching his troops eighty miles in forty-eight hours; but then his prosecution of the war became listless, and he lost much sympathy by his brutal murder of Arthur whilst in a drunken rage. By 1204 Normandy was lost.

      The loss of Normandy seemed to wake John up, and he now deployed his every energy in building up the coastal defenses of Britain, now faced with an enemy the other side of the Channel, instead of just more of her own territory. The navy was built up, and the army, and John poured a quarter of his annual revenue into defense. But he could not persuade the baronage to support him in a counterstroke to regain Normandy: the barons of the north country had never owned land in Normandy and did not see why they should pay to regain southerner's castles for them. These 'Northerners' as they called themselves, were a hive of discontent, and more was to be heard from them. Meanwhile, John sailed angrily about in the Channel, cursing ineffectually.

      Other troubles were to come first, however. In 1205 the Archbishop of Canterbury, Hubert Walker, died, and John assumed that he would have the choice of the new archbishop. However, Pope Innocent III was no man to support secular control over church appointments, and supported the right of the monks of Canterbury to select their own archbishop. For two years the storms blew between England and Rome, then Stephen Langton was appointed. Meanwhile John had driven the monks into exile and appropriated the revenues of the archdiocese. He had fallen out also with his half-brother, Geoffrey Archbishop or York, over tax-collection, and he too fled abroad while John collected his revenues. Four bishops joined in his fight--tension was growing to the snapping point. In 1208 the Pope put an Interdict on England, which in effect meant the clergy went on strike, or, in certain cases and areas, worked to rule. John began negotiations with Innocent, but, finding that he demanded unconditional surrender, stopped them and took over all ecclesiastical properties and incomes. He did leave the clergy sufficient to live, though barely; but he still gained a large increment to his usual finances. In November 1209 the Pope took the final step of excommunicating the King, which, in that it made him an outlaw in Christendom, did far more damage than the Interdict.

      John used his enlarged treasury to restore order in Scotland, Ireland and Wales, and to rebuild the old alliance with Otto IV of Germany and the Count of Flanders against Philip Augustus. He planned a two-pronged attack on France, to take place in 1212. But that year turned out an unlucky one for John, for the barons again refused to serve abroad, and the army he had was needed to put down a revolt in Wales; the Pope was threatening to demote him, and Philip Augustus was planning a massive invasion of England. John had to give in in one direction, for the pressure was much too great: he chose the Pope, and wisely so. He agreed to return to the status quo in the matter of church property and establishment, and to pay compensation; he further resigned his kingdom into the hands of the Pope, to receive it back in return for his homage and an annual tribute of 1,000 marks (a mark being two-thirds of a pound].

      He had won a notable ally in Innocent III, who supported him faithfully throughout his troubles. Then his fleet, his own creation, had the good luck to find the French fleet at anchor and unprotected, destroyed it, and so made a French invasion impossible. On the crest of a wave, John determined to put his two-pronged invasion plan into action, but once more the northern barons refused to play, and he set off to punish them. Stephen Langton had arrived on the scene by now and managed to persuade John not to provoke the barons further.

      In 1214 he finally managed to put his long cherished plan into action, but the two attacks were not properly coordinated; Otto was defeated at Bovines, and John was deserted by his Protein knights.

      In 1215 John faced a baronage in turmoil: they could point to the failure of his expensive schemes, he ascribed his failure to their total lack of support. The situation could not be more tense. John's nervousness can be seen in his taking of the cross, a blatant attempt to reinforce his alliance with the papacy. In April the Northerners met at Stamford; they were by now a mixture of northerners and southerners--the name was now merely a nickname--but by and large they were the younger element in the kingdom, roughnecks out for a spree. They moved south and were let into London by a faction, and received the expected encouragement from Philip Augustus in the form of siege engines brought over by one Eustace, a renegade monk turned pirate.

      John offered arbitration, but the barons turned it down, and while he put his faith in an appeal to Rome, Stephen Langton, in cooperation with William Marshal and other more stable and sensible barons, were working on the Northerners' demands to incorporate them into a general charter, which would not only govern feudal relationships, but would also lay down a more general pattern of legality in government. On 15 June John fixed his seal to the draft of Magna Carat, and on 19 June attested copies were sent to all parts of the kingdom.

      The King did his part thoroughly, though for how long he would have continued is another matter, but the barons continued to distrust him. They remained in arms, organizing tournaments as their excuse, saying that the prize would be 'a bear a certain lady would send.' This was civil war, and John took to it with a fiendish glee. He reduced the north and the east, and was about to mop up the remainder of the opposition in London when Philip Augustus' son Louis landed in force to help the barons (May 1216). John had been riding hard for months, and was sick with dysentery after a bout of over-eating; whilst crossing the Wash, the whole of his baggage-train was lost. At Newark Castle on 18 October, he died, desiring to be buried near his patron saint Wolfsan in Worcester Cathedral.

      He was by no means a good man, and his energies could well have been put to a better use, but in a different situation he might well have made a great king. His constant failure was discipline, over himself first, and others second. John reminds me of nothing so much as the type of person who is brilliant in many ways, and has many gifts, but leaves after two terms 'not suited to teaching in this type of school.' [Who's Who in the Middle Ages, John Fines, Barnes and Noble Books, New York, 1995]

  • Sources 
    1. [S211] The Magna Charta Sureties 1215, Frederick Lewis Weis, additions by Walter Lee Sheppard Jr., line 161.

    2. [S222] Ancestral Roots of Certain American Colonists, 7th Edition, Frederick Lewis Weis, additions by Walter Lee Shippard Jr., 1-25.

    3. Details: cxviii.